The Southern California region is comprised of the Counties of Los Angeles, Ventura, San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange and covers Caltrans Districts 7, 8, 12 and a portion of District 11. The following represents the activity and core centers in the Southern California region:

AreaActivity Center
Los Angeles Downtown CBD, Burbank/Glendale/Pasadena, Beverly Hills, Century City, Claremont, Commerce, Compton, Culver City, Hollywood/West Hollywood, City of Industry, Inglewood, LAX area, Long Beach, Marina del Rey, Palmdale, Pomona, San Fernando Valley (numerous subareas), USC area, Valencia, Warner Center, Westwood, West Covina, Wilshire
Orange Anaheim, Buena Park, Costa Mesa, Fullerton, Irvine, Huntington Beach, Newport, Orange, Santa Ana, Westminster
San Bernardino/Riverside Corona, Ontario, Rancho Cucamonga, Palm Springs, Redlands, Riverside, San Bernardino, Upland
Ventura Oxnard, Simi Valley, Thousand Oaks, Ventura

Source: SCAG, 1992


This Southern California region contains 49% of the California population with approximately 15.1 million inhabitants, of which approximately 6.3 million of these are commuters.


Southern California Region State of California
POPULATION 15,107,000 30,989,000
Growth 1980 1992

2.3% 2.3%
Growth 1990 1992


2.0% 2.0%
African-American 8.5% 7.1%
Asian-American 8.9% 9.2%
Hispanic 32.9% 25.4%

49.9% 57.4%
Households 5,025,000 10,667,000

Household Size

2.95 2.83
Median Household

$36,711 $35,798
Median Age 30.8 years 31.5 years
JOBS Wage and Salary


6,325,000 12,522,000
Manufac turing 20.1% 20.1%
Services 26.8% 26.8%
Trade 23.6% 23.7%
Fire/Insurance/ Real Estate 6.8% 6.7%
Government 13.0% 16.0%
Other 9.7%10.3%
JOBS PER HOUSEHOLD (approx) 1.29 1.21

Source: U.S. Census 1980 and 1990; California Department of Finance, 1992

About 50% of the Southern California populat

ion is comprised of ethnic minorities. The Hispanic population is the largest ethnic minority in the State. Approximately 32.9% of Southern California residents are Hispanic. Asian-Americans present 8.9%, and African-Americans are 8.5%. The non-Hispanic whites are 49.9% of the population (U.S. Census, 1990).



Mode split in the region is as follows:




State of



State of



SCAQMD Database

Drive Alone 72.3% 77%79% 68.15%
Carpool/Vanpool15.5% 15% 15.5%21.47%
Tr ansit 4.6% 5%3.5% 3.97%
Motorcycle 0.5% 0.5 .62%
Bicycle 0.7% 1%.5% .80%
Wal k 2.9%2% 1% 2.08%
Work at Home 2.7% Not Included Not Included .63%
Other Means 0.7% Not Included Not Included .15%

Note: (1) Percentages may not equal 100% due to rounding.

(2) SCAQMD database includes employers with more than 100 employees.

As data from the State of the Commute seems to indicate, the drive alone percentage has increased, and the percentage of transit riders, bicycle commuters and those who walk to work has decreased from 1992 to 1993. However, with the initiation of Metrolink, rail usage in the region is expected to increase. As expected, levels of carpools and vanpools are higher for the regulated companies (those with 100 or more employees), than for the general regulation.


For commuters throughout this region, the average one-way commuting distance in 1993 is 14.8 miles. This represents a 1.8 mile reduction from 1992. This was the first time in 5 years the commute travel distance decreased.

1992 1993
Los Angeles15.8 miles 13.3 miles
Orange 14.4 miles 14.0 miles
Riversi de 20.9 miles 22.8 miles
San Bernardino 20.5 miles 20.0 miles
Ventura 17.7 miles 15.4 miles

Source: CTS, 1992, 1993

Commuters in 1993 spent an average of 33 minutes commuting to work and 36 minutes returning home which is approximately 3 minutes less time than last year. Riverside and San Bernardino residents still have the longest commutes (22.8 and

20.0 respectively).


Although an estimated 40% to 50% percent of all commutes in the region are suburb to suburb within a county, some travel occurs between counties. Thirty percent of residents in both San Bernardino and Riverside Counties work outside their county (CTS, 1993).

Los Angeles

San Bernardino
Los Angeles 90% 17%10% 22% 23%
Work Orange 6%76% 9% 5% 1
County Riverside 0%1

69% 9% 0


2% 1%10% 63% 0
Ventura 1% 00 0 74%

Source: CTS, 1993

In addition to commutes between counties, commuters are also commuting to the Southern California region from counties outside the region. The most frequent interregional trips from outside the region occur between the following counties:

* Imperial and Riverside County

* Santa Barbara and Ventura/Los Angeles Counties

* San Diego and Orange County

* Kern and Los Angeles County


The following information represents the typical monthly cost of commuting in this region.

Mode Cost / Month
Local Bus $37 to $42
Express Bus $44 to $107
Vanpool $90 to $110
Rail $42

to $140
Carpool (2 persons) $160
Drive Alone $320

This analysis uses

information provided by LACMTA, OCTA, SCRRA, Automobile Club of Southern California, Caltrans and CTS to estimate commute costs in the Los Angeles area. It assumes 20 miles (one way) commute, 20 work days per month, and $0.40 per mile cost to drive (with no parking costs). The drive alone and carpool costs include the commuter's capital and operating costs.



Federal Clean Air Act (1990)

The Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require that states with severe and extreme ozone non-attainment areas implement programs which require employers with 100 or more employees to reduce work related vehicle trips and vehicle mile traveled. The 1990 Federal Clean Air Act established requirements for states that do no

t meet air pollution standards. To reduce air pollution, states are required to control pollution from mobile sources. The legislation requires a 15% improvement in air quality in the first six years, with 3% annual average reductions in the following years. The 1990 amendment place new requirements on employers of 100 more people to reduce work-related trips by 25% above the area average.

States with non-attainment areas are to revise their State Implementation Plans (SIPs) to include strategies for meeting new air quality targets. Violations of federal standards could result in the loss of millions of dollars in federal funding for highway and other infrastructure improvements.

Federal Energy Bill (1992)

The Federal Energy Bill, went into effect on January 1, 1993, raising the tax-exempt employer-provided transit subsidy to $60 per month. Only transit subsidies in excess of $60 per month are taxable to the employee. A tax-free vanpool allowance of $60 is permitted. Furthermore, for the first time, parking is taxed for any amount above $155 per month. Carpooling, bicycling, walking and all other transportation allowances will most likely still be considered taxable income.

Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits employers from discriminating against a "qualified individual with a disability." In July 1992, the Act was effective for employers with 25 or more employees. In July 1994, it will apply to employers of between 15 and 24 employees. Some of the transportation related provisions include:

* New public buses must be accessible to disabled people;

* Paratransit of special transportation must be provided to those who cannot use fixed routes;

* Existing rail must have one accessible car per train by July 26, 1995;

* New rail systems must be accessible to disabled people;

* Key rail stations must be accessible by July 26, 1992; and

* New bus and train stations must be accessible.


California Clean Air Act (1988)

As a result of Federal Clean Air Act Standards, t

he California Clean Air Act of 1988 requires the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) to adopt and enforce transportation control measures designed to increase the average vehicle ridership (AVR) in the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) to 1.5 by 1999, with no net increase in vehicle emissions after 1997, and rank control measures in order of their cost effectiveness (CARB, 1990). Recognizing the effect of motor vehicle activities on air quality, the California State Legislature enacted Senate Bill 151 (Presley) which empowers air pollution control districts to control emissions resulting from vehicular travel.

Parking Cash Out Program (1992)

The Parking Cash Out Program is a State regulation that requires employers with 50 or more employees and who purchase parking for their employees to offer cash to employees in lieu of parking. The cash amount must be equal to the employer's cost of providing work site parking. The regulation also requires CMAs to consider parking cash out when developing and updating their trip reduction and travel demand elements. In addition, cities and counties must reduce parking requirements as appropriate. Employers affected by this regulation must be located in air quality non-attainment areas, have 50 or more employees, already subsidize parking, not own their parking spaces, and be subject to leases requiring rental of a fixed number of parking spaces.

Petroleum Usage (SB 1214)

SB 1214 requires that the State Energy Resources Commission forecast, report on and evaluate various fuel usage reduction strategies in consultation with various state agencies. It would require long-range and interim targets for fuel diversity that reduce demand for petroleum. Funding for this effort is allocated via the Petroleum Violation Escrow Account (PVEA).

Variable Work Hours Related Legislation

Recently in California, several work orders have been promulgated by the Industrial Welfare Commission. These work orders define conditions for implementing a variable work hours program. Among the conditions are 1

) an agreement must be in writing and approved by secret ballot; 2) variations for any combination of days and hours are permissible provided that a regular day does not exceed 12 hours and any additional hours per day or more than 40 hours per week will be counted as overtime; and 3) the program may only be changed after 12 months and by petition of 1/3 of affected employees.

Leslie Bill SB 883

SB 883 exempts employees with fewer than 100 employees at a given worksite from submitting trip reduction plans that are required by air pollution control and air quality management districts. This bill was signed by Governor Peter Wilson in September 1993.


Regulation XV

Regulation XV was adopted by the Board of the SCAQMD in October 1987, and its implementation began July 1, 1988. It requires that private and public sector employers with 100 or more employees complete and file a plan which demonstrates how they will increase the average vehicle ridership (AVR) at the work site. This regulation affects approximately 7,500 employers and one-sixth of employees in the Counties of Orange, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, and Riverside (Discussion with SCAQMD Public Affairs Office, 1992). Regulation XV was amended in 1993. Rule 1501 sets limits on miles to telecenters (20 miles one way), allows for geographic plans, and requires trip reduction plans every other year.

SB 1352

Senate Bill 1352 prohibits the SCAQMD, until January 1, 1997, from requiring any employer with fewer than 100 employees at a single worksite to submit a trip reduction plan.

Rule 210

Rule 210 was adopted by the Board of the Ventura County Air Pollution District in June 1989. It requires private and public sector employers in Ventura County with more than 50 employees arriving at a work site between 6 a.m. and 10 p.m. to reduce commuter trips. With an adoption of Senate Bill 883, Rule 210 can only regulate employers with more than 100 employees. Similar to Rule 1501, employers are required to complete and file a trip reduction plan demonstrating how the

y will be increasing their AVR. Rule 210 impacts approximately 250 employers and one-fifth of employees in Ventura County.

The focus of both Regulation XV and Rule 210 is to primarily improve air quality through transportation demand management programs that reduce peak hour commuter trips. They represent the regional effort being made to comply with the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.


CMPs have been drafted for every County in the Southern California region. The following summarizes the TDM elements of the Los Angeles, Orange, San Bernardino, Riverside and Ventura County CMPs.

Los Angeles County CMP

The Los Angeles County CMP was adopted in 1992 and updated in 1993 by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. It includes a model trip reduction and travel demand ordinance for adoption by municipalities. The Final TDM ordinance includes minimum requirements for new developments. It includes guidelines for site specific improvements such as bicycle racks, TDM bulletin boards, preferential parking, vanpool turnouts, loading zones, bus stop improvements, etc. These improvements apply to developments of varying sizes. Each city must report to the LACTC that it is complying with the CMP. The CMP will be adopted by December, 1992, after which local jurisdictions are responsible for adopting and implementing local ordinances within 120 days.

Orange County CMP

The Orange County CMP was adopted by the Orange County Transportation Authority in 1991 and updated in 1993. This CMP achieves TDM compliance by developing a model TDM ordinance that has been adopted by all Orange County jurisdictions. In similar fashion to the Los Angeles County TDM ordinance, the Orange County model TDM ordinance is facilities-based, requiring improvements in new developments such as preferential carpool parking, bicycle parking, showers, Rideshare information boards, Rideshare loading/unloading areas, and bus stop improvements. Requirements in the model ordinance apply to new developments with 100 or m

ore employees.

San Bernardino CMP

This CMP was adopted by the San Bernardino Association of Governments in 1991 and updated in 1993 (SANBAG). SANBAG is responsible for assisting local jurisdictions in the development and implementation of a trip reduction and travel demand management ordinance, and studying methods to encourage transit, TDM, pedestrian and bicycle-oriented development. Local jurisdictions are required to develop and implement ordinances, encourage employment oriented development in San Bernardino County to improve jobs/housing balance, and include compressed work weeks and telecommuting in the local trip reduction ordinances.

Riverside County CMP

The Riverside County CMP was adopted by the Riverside County Transportation Commission in 1991 and updated in 1993. The TDM element of this CMP refers local jurisdictions to a model ordinance. The approach presented by this ordinance focuses on capital facilities which would encourage ridesharing and transit through the development review process.

Ventura County CMP

This CMP was adopted by the Ventura County Transportation Commission in 1991, and updated in 1993. It supports the adoption of local ordinances to the extent that they are consistent with the implementation of Rule 210. As part of their development review process, cities may establish TDM goals for proposed new development. Several cities including Oxnard, Camarillo, and Ventura have required the developers of certain offices and business park projects to design and implement TDM programs as a condition for obtaining project approvals. The Ventura CMP places a great emphasis on developing bicycling facilities and programs.


Local Trip Reduction Ordinances (TROs)

Several TROs have been adopted in the Southern California region. As a result of CMPs many cities within the counties of this region have adopted model ordinances as specified by their CMP. The cities of Irvine and Santa Monica have ordinances in place that are more stringent than Rule 1501. These ordinances require compliance from e

mployers of various sizes and require target AVRs during both a.m. peak to reduce pollutant output and p.m. peak to reduce congestion. At a minimum, these ordinances must be consistent with Regulation XV or Rule 210. Where such TROs are as or more stringent than the model TDM Ordinance proposed in the draft CMP, they may remain in place. Otherwise cities will have to revise their TROs accordingly.



Throughout much of Southern California, commuters travel on congested freeways and arterials. The worst levels of congestion are typically experienced in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, where many freeways and major arterials now operate at a Level of Service F (LOS) (speeds of less than 20 miles per hour). Even in the less densely populated counties of Ventura, San Bernardino, and Riverside, portions of the freeway network (e.g. I-10, SR 91 and US 101) operate at LOS F during peak hour commute periods (Caltrans, 1993).

Despite a decline in Los Angeles County congestion, Southern California remains the most congested region in the state (Caltrans, 1993). In Los Angeles County, Routes 10 and 60 were the most congested routes, experiencing over 3 hours of delay in the morning peak and almost 5 hours of delay in the afternoon. Both Routes 10 (San Bernardino Freeway) and 60 (Pomona Freeway) connect major activity centers with affordable housing in Eastern Los Angeles County, Riverside County, and San Bernardino County. On the Westside, Routes 10 (Santa Monica Freeway) and 405 (San Diego Freeway) also experience heavy congestion, with congestion occurring in both directions (Caltrans, 1993).

Orange County is the second most congested County. Most of the vehicle delays occur on Routes 91 and 405 (53%). Route 5 (Northbound in the morning and Southbound in the evening) and Route 57 (Southbound in the morning and Northbound in the evening) also are heavily congested (Caltrans, 1993).

Riverside and San Bernardino Counties experience congestion due to residents commuting to work sites in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Route 91 (between Riverside and Orange Counties) is the most congested corridor in these two Counties. Other major congestion is located in Routes 10 and 60 (Caltrans, 1993).



In Southern California, there are 228 HOV lane miles. This represents 56% of the total HOV lane miles in California. Unlike the Bay Area and San Diego areas, where HOV facilities are only used during peak hours, Southern California HOV lanes operate 24 hours per day. A total of 390 additional HOV lane miles are planned for this region. The following table briefly summarizes existing and proposed HOV facilities.

Caltrans District Location





Opening Date Minimum Users per Vehicle
7El Monte Busway (I-10)

Downtown LA/El Monte

Los Angeles Transitway 25.5 19733+
7Artesia (SR-91)

110 / 605 (EB)

Los Angeles Buffer 18.9 19852+
8SR 91

Main St. to Magnolia Ave.

Riverside Buffer 22.2 19922+
12 SR 55

I 405 / SR 91

Orange Buffer 24.6 19852+
12 I-405

I-5 / LA-OR Co. Line

Orange Buffer 48.0 19902+
12 I-5

I 405 to SR 55

Orange Buffer 18.0 19922+
12 SR 57

I-5 / LA-OR Co Line

Orange Buffer 23.8 19922+

I-405 / I-605

Los Angeles Buffer 33.2 19932+

I-110 / 120th Street

Los Angeles Buffer 14.4 19932+

Rte 134 / Sunflower Ave

Los Angeles Buffer 37.0 1993 / 94 2+

Source: Caltrans, 1993.












Rte 105 to Adams Blvd

Los Angeles Transitway 30.4 1994/1995

Various Segments

Los Angeles Buffer 20.6 1994
7SR-91 Rte 110 to Central Avenue Los

Buffer 3.4 Not Available
12 I-5

4th St. to 17th St.

Orange Buffer 2.6 1994

Source: Caltrans, 1993


Located mostly in suburban areas, Caltrans administers Park & Ride lots as a convenient, low-cost incentive to assist commuters in meeting up with transit, vanpools, and carpools (CTS, 1992). OCTA operates a number of Park

and Ride lots in the Orange County area. While many Park and Ride lots are on State right-of-ways adjacent to freeways, some lots operate on private land (e.g. churches, supermarkets, drive-ins). In addition, there are many other unofficial ridesharing lots operating in commercial and government parking lots. In this region, there are 158 park and ride lots with 17,517 parking spaces. The lots operate at 63% capacity, which is down from last year (In 1991, the lots operated at 67% capacity).


County Caltrans




Spaces Used



Los Angeles/


7 9712,246 8,164 67%
San Bernardino/ Riverside 8 292,460 1,562 63%
Orange 12 322,811 1,385 49%

Source: Caltrans, 1993; CTS, 1992



The two largest bus operators in the region are the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LACMTA) and the Orange County Transportation Authority (OCTA). Together, they operate over 3,000 buses during peak commute hours.




of Buses







MTA 2,576141 38 *1,228,000
OCTA 50879 16 139,000

* Includes buses, Red Line and Blue Line

Source: LACMTA, 1994; OCTA,1992; Metro Magazine, 1993.

Both agencies are planning to increase their bus fleet size, particularly with regard to their freeway express bus programs (LACTC, 1991; OCTA, 1991). In addition to LACMTA and OCTA, over 50 other operators provide fixed route transit service. Some of these bus service operators include:

* Los Angeles Department of Transportation with a total bus fleet of 200, 9th largest in the state,

* Foothill Transit, with a fleet of 198, 10th largest in the state,

* Long Beach Transit, with a total bus fleet of 197, 11th largest in the state,

* Omnitrans, with a fleet of 177, 12th largest in the state,

* Santa Monica, with a fleet of 135, 14th largest in the state (Metro Magazine, 1993; California Transit Association, 1993).

The following table provides a historical perspective on bus ridership for a selected number of the region's larger transit operators.


Selected Public Bus Operators

Ridership in Millions



Santa Monica

1987 427.117.1 16.9 32.4493.5
1988 424.318.3 17.8 37.7498.1
1989 401.019.

19.7 43.3484.3
1990 410.120.8 19.4 48.4498.7
Percent Increase


4.0% 21.6% 14.8%49.4% 1.1%

Source: Caltrans, 1991


In Southern California, there are four rail transit operators. LACMTA operates the Metro Blue Line (54 light rail vehicles) seven days a week, with 15 minute headway between 5 a.m. and 11 p.m. and the Metro Red Line. Amtrak operates 20 daily inter-city trains (20 rail cars total between San Diego, downtown Los Angeles and Santa Barbara). One train is operated by the Orange County Transportation Authority (4 rail and 1 inter-city car) between San Juan Capistrano and downtown Los Angeles weekdays at 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. By April 1994, the OCTA commuter rail line will become part of the new Metrolink Oceanside/Los Angeles line (OCTA, 1994) With connections to both Los Angeles and San Diego, Oceanside residents will have rail service to both major urban areas.

The Southern California Regional Rail Authority (SCRRA) or Metrolink, a joint powers authority of Los Angeles, Ventura, San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange Counties, operates four lines (61 trains daily), providing peak hour service between Moorpark, Santa Clarita, Riverside, San Bernardino, and downtown Los Angeles. After the Northridge earthquake, Metrolink extended the Santa Clarita Line to the Palmdale/Lancaster area and the Ventura Line to Camarillo. Metrolink will ultimately encompass 412 miles and 50 stations.

On an average week day, Metrolink carries 9,400 passengers. While many passengers are destined for Union Station, there are other passengers destined for more suburban destinations such as Burbank, Glendale or El Monte (SCRRA, 1994).

Generally, the typical Metrolink rider is very different from a bus rider. Former drive alones, Metrolink riders live about five miles from the station and work about three miles from a station and are most likely a white, male professional with a household income of $63,000 (Facts Consolidated, 1993).

During the 1980s, local transportation agencies, particularly in Los Angeles County, embarked on massive programs to reinstate a regional rail transit system composed of heavy rail (e.g. Metro Road Line), light rail (e.g. the Long Beach Blue Line), and commuter rail (e.g. Metrolink). Los Angeles County transportation officials anticipate that the rail system should serve as the backbone of the regional transit system (LACMTA, 1993).








* MetroLink Commuter 9,400
Ventura / L.A. 45.2 1992
Santa Clarita / L.A. 35.0 1992
Riverside / L.A. 57.0 1993
* Long Beach Blue Line

Long Beach / LA

Light 221990 40,000
* OCTA Metrolink

San Juan Capistrano / LA

Commuter 58 1990575
* Metro Red Line(MOS -1)

Union/MacArthur Park

Heavy 4.41993 18,000
* Amtrak San Diegan

San Diego / LA

Inter-city 129 19712,250

Source: LACMTA, 1994; OCTA, 1992; Caltrans, 1992; Wachs 1992; SCRRA, 1994.


(Under Construction)






Metrolink (Extension to

Oceanside) Oceanside /LA

Commuter 61.4 19944,500
Metrolink San Bernardino/


Commuter 46.5 19946,500
Metro Green Line (new line)

Century Fwy/LAX

Light 20.0 199525,000
Pasadena Blue Line Light 13.61996 55,000
Metro Red Line (MOS-2)


Heavy 6.71996-8 200,000*

*Estimated patronage in year 2000

Source: LACMTA, 1993; Caltrans, 1992; SCRRA, 1993.


Los Angeles County

Los Angeles County is served by 40 different transit systems, operated by 57 governmental units. The fixed route system is composed of over 650 different routes and over 3,250 buses organized as a mixture of grid, radial and

shuttle services. The rail system includes one 4.4 mile heavy rail line, one light rail line, and five commuter rail lines (including one line from Orange County). There are four additional fixed route operators from outlying counties which operate local and commuter service into Los Angeles County. Approximately 55 express routes operate on portions of the freeway system (LACTC, 1992).

The LACMTA is the largest transit agency, operating 2,576 buses and 54 light rail vehicles in a 1,422 square mile area. The LACMTA has an average daily ridership of 1,228,000 (LACMTA, 1994). The Los Angeles Department of Transportation (LADOT), Foothill Transit, Santa Monica Municipal Bus Lines, Long Beach Transit, and a number of other operators provide both express and local service (SCAG, 1993).

Orange County

The Orange County Transportation Authority (OCTA) operates 508 buses and provides service throughout Orange County. In addition to its local service, OCTA operates express bus routes to Downtown Los Angeles and Riverside County, and commuter rail to Downtown Los Angeles. OCTA is responsible for County-wide transportation planning, and the operation of both transit and rideshare service (OCTA, 1991). OCTA's average daily ridership is approximately 139,000. According to an OCTA On-Board Bus Study (1990), the typical local service customer is Hispanic, transit dependent, age 22-34 with a household income of less than $30,000. In contrast, the typical 1990 OCTA Express Bus Service customer was white, had access to a car, age 35-54 with a household income of over $50,000.

Ventura County

In Ventura County, cities provide transit service to meet local travel needs. Ventura, Oxnard, Ojai, Santa Paula and Port Hueneme formed the South Coast Area Transit (SCAT) to provide bus service in their communities. In addition to SCAT, Simi Valley, Fillmore, Moorpark, Camarillo and Thousand Oaks have fixed route transit service (JHK & Associates, 1991; Ventura County, 1993). In Ventura County, the average daily transit ridership is approximately 9,000. Expr

ess bus service is available along the Port Hueneme-Oxnard-Ventura corridor, Thousand Oaks-San Fernando Valley corridor and the Simi Valley-Chatsworth corridor. Ventura County operators utilize 55 buses on a variety of fixed routes (VCTC, 1991; VCTC, 1993; Ventura County, 1993). The Ventura County Transportation Commission, transit providers and local jurisdictions are examining the feasibility of enhancing bus and rail service, including new express service on Routes 101 and 126, the Eastern and Central areas of the County (SCAG, 1993).

In addition to express and local bus service, Metrolink operates commuter rail service between Moorpark and Downtown Los Angeles. After the Northridge earthquake, Metrolink added service to Camarillo.

Riverside County

The Riverside Transit Agency (RTA) provides most of the transit service in Riverside County. Five other agencies offer fixed route service. While RTA provides service throughout the western portion of Riverside County, the City of Riverside is the system's focal point. Within the City of Riverside, major attractors/generators include the downtown business district, Riverside Plaza, Galleria at Tyler, University of California, Riverside, and Riverside Community College. Approximately 42% of all transit trips involve City of Riverside trip attractors/generators. Recognizing the need for express bus service along the Riverside (Route 91) Freeway, Riverside Transit Authority, Omnitrans and the Inland Empire Connection operate an express bus between Riverside and Orange Counties. The RTA operates approximately 70 buses on fixed rates, including mini-buses (RCTC, 1992). In addition to bus service, Metrolink operates commuter rail service between Riverside and Downtown Los Angeles.

San Bernardino County

Communities in San Bernardino County with smaller populations are served by Dial-A-Ride service and limited fixed route bus services. In the most urbanized southwestern region of San Bernardino County, Omnitrans is the largest transit provider. Omnitrans operates 177 buses and has the 12th

largest bus fleet in the State (Metro Magazine, 1993; California Transit Association, 1993). Omnitrans has an average daily ridership of 18,189 (Omnitrans, 1992). Barstow, Victorville and the mountain communities (between Crestline and Lake Arrowhead) also operate fixed route bus service (Caltrans, 1991). In this part of the county, Omnitrans provides service to approximately 70 percent of the major employers (100 or more employees). A recent Omnitrans marketing survey identified most of their current rider base as transit dependent, with less income and education than non-riders (JHK & Associates, 1991).

Metrolink provides commuter rail service between San Bernardino and Downtown Los Angeles. Eighty-eight percent of the San Bernardino line passengers are destined for Downtown Los Angeles.


For more detailed information regarding transit operators, please refer to the transit operator profiles attached as an appendix to this report.



Based on the SCAQMD database of 5,307 companies, the following are the top ten marketing activities of employers with more than 100 employees.

Activity% Offered
Articles in Company Newsletter 81%
Flyer Announcements 79%
Programs Discussed with Employees 79%
Specific Rideshare Newsletter 76%
Rideshare Meetings 60%
Bulletin Boards 56%
TMA Rideshare Fairs 56%
CEO Involved in Events 56%
Matchlists 55%
Drawings 54%


The following are the top ten incentives offered by employers with more than 100 employed as documented by the SCAQMD database.

Incentive% of Employers
Prize Drawings 6.72%
Other 6.18%
Preferential Parking 5.19%
Transit Subsidies 5.09%
New Hire Orientation 3.97%
Bike Racks / Lockers 3.93%
Employer-based Ride Matching 3.80%
Guaranteed Ride Home for Emergencies 3.72%
Management Commitment 3.67%
Ride Matching by Regional Agency 3.59%


Alternative Work Schedules (AWS) are becoming increasingly popular among Southern California employers. Flex-time is the most widely ad

opted program. Forty-one percent of employees in this region are offered the opportunity to participate in a flex-time program, followed by 20% in a 4/40 schedule, 12% in a 9/80 program, and 6% in a 3/36 program. These numbers compare very closely to 1992 percentages, however, there is an increase from 15% in a 4/40 program in 1992 to 20% in a 4/40 program in 1993. Regulation XV and Rule 210 have encouraged many companies to adopt compressed work week programs. Employees working for firms with more than 100 employees are more likely to work a 4/40 or 9/80 work schedule than those at smaller firms (CTS, 1993).


Approximately 10% of the employees in this region have the opportunity to participate in work at home or telecommute programs. Of those offered the program, a very high percentage (90%) participate. These participants report an average of four days of working at home per month. There is a positive correlation between one's annual income and the opportunity to telecommute (CTS, 1993). Some of the largest and oldest telecommuting programs in the nation were started in Southern California. Pacific Bell, and the County of Los Angeles are examples of private and public sector involvement in this region.


Although charging for parking is one of the most powerful tools for reducing the number of solo drivers, 93% of commuters in this region receive free parking. The average (mean) parking amount paid per month per employee is $65.91 (CTS, 1993). The average parking paid per month per employee in 1992 was $45.54 (which was about $20 lower). Parking is usually free and quite abundant for commuters in this region. In most CBDs, monthly parking is available at rates ranging from $40.00 to $75.00 per month.

Those parking management programs that do exist are typically implemented in core areas where the parking supply is more limited and access to it more controllable. About half of the employees working in Downtown Los Angeles pay full price for their parking, the rest either pay nothing or receive a subsidy.


Guaranteed Ride Home (GRH) programs have dramatically increased in this region. Research on companies complying with Regulation XV shows that within the first year of submitting Regulation XV plans, 47.3% of the companies had GRH programs; in the second year that number had increased to 74.5%. The average increase in carpooling at sites providing GRH (and monetary incentives) was higher than at sites without such incentives. According to CTS, 39% of the employees in this region are aware of GRH programs at their worksite (CTS, 1993).

Caltrans' 10 GRH grantees in Southern California includes three TMAs (Gateway Corporate Center, Irvine Spectrum and LA 12th Council District), several governmental units (Orange County, Moreno Valley school district, Los Angeles County Office of Education), three private entities (Northrop Corp., Provident Savings Bank, and Director's Mortgage Loan Corp.) and a non-profit (Inland Empire Economic Council).



Service Area: Ventura, Los Angeles and Orange Counties

Total Potential Market: To travel to LAX, 80-85% use automobile, 10-13% door-to-door services, 3-5% scheduled/charter bus service and 1% public transit

Transit use is concentrated in the San Fernando Valley (11.0% to 14.5% of airport users due to frequent Van Nuys FlyAway service) and Anaheim (11.1% of area residents and 19.8% of area visitors due to Disneyland tourist attraction).

Average Weekday Unlinked Trips: n/a

Vehicles: buses, taxis, shuttles

Services: private automobile; door-to-door services (taxis, shuttles); non-stop fixed route (Van Nuys FlyAway, Express) and public transit at Lot C (MTA, Torrance, Culver, and Santa Monica)

Operating Expenses: n/a

Marketing Expenses: n/a

Target Market: LAX passengers and LAX employees

Marketing Efforts/Programs:

* LAX RideLink Program (consisting of awareness campaign;

* Creation of 1-800-310 LINK telephone number

* Corporate and Grass Roots Outreach Campaign

* LAX Van Nuys FlyAway Campaign

* LAX Employer Programs

* Westche

ster/LAX TMA events


The Riverside County Commuter Exchange is a 40-foot custom built vehicle that is used at events for large companies, transportation fairs, trade shows, business parks and malls to promote carpooling, commuting by bus, mass transit, bicycling and walking. This unit cost $100,000, has an onboard computer and printer to help match carpoolers, a VCR that plays educational tapes, a small kitchenette, and pamphlets and materials on transportation services. The Mobile Commuter Exchange was funded and developed by the Riverside County Transportation Commission.


Twelve percent of employees in this region claim that they have the opportunity to work at an alternative work site. The vast majority (84%) of those offered the opportunity to utilize alternative work sites do so an average of four times a month (CTS, 1993). There are several telecenters in this region, located in Ontario, Apple Valley, Riverside, Santa Clarita, East Highlands, Antelope Valley, Pomona, and Simi Valley. Additional telecenters are to open in 1994. These include Long Beach, Mission Viejo, and Anaheim. A variety of private and public sector employers share these facilities and allow their employees who live near these centers to work at the telecenters 1-2 days per week.



Rideshare Assistance Programs focus on reducing traffic congestion by encouraging commuters to join carpools, vanpools or utilize public transit. Much of this effort is provided by rideshare agencies. In Southern California, Commuter Transportation Services (CTS) and the Orange County Transportation Authority (OCTA), and Transportation Management Associations provide rideshare assistance. TMAs also provide rideshare services to member employees.


CTS is a private non-profit corporation. Founded in 1974, it is the oldest and largest ridesharing organization in the country. It provides services to commuters in Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino and Ventura Count

ies. Caltrans and the county transportation commissions are the primary funders of CTS. CTS's FY 1992-93 budget was $12,193,000 and it generated 633,184 matchlists with 117,358 placements (20.3% placement rate).


OCTA Commuter Management Services is responsible for rideshare assistance in Orange County. In 1991 the Orange County Transit District merged with the Orange County Transportation Commission to form the Orange County Transportation Authority. The rideshare agency continues to provide local ridesharing, and employer outreach through the Commute Management Services Department (CMS). The CMS operated the 1992-1993 Rideshare program with a $2.5 million budget. Commuter Transportation Services will shortly commence providing the rideshare services previously provided by OCTA.


Transportation Management Associations (TMAs) represent public/private partnership between developers, building owners/managers, employers, governmental organization and others working together to solve transportation related problems affecting a specific area or region through TDM and TSM measures.

There are approximately 90 TMAs in the state of California. Approximately 34 TMAs are located in the Southern California region. Most of these TMAs are in urban cores.

The types of services most often provided by TMAs include carpool matchlist, GRH programs, regulatory compliance assistance, and other rideshare coordination and marketing programs.

Los Angeles County Antelope Valley Commuter Services, Beverly Hills, Burbank City Centre TMA, Burbank Media District TMO, Century City TMO, El Segundo Employers Association, Gateway Corporate Center TMA, Glendale TMA, Hollywood TMO, Long Beach Airport Area Traffic Reduction, Mid San Fernando Valley TMA, Santa Monica Area, Pasadena Civic Center TMA, Santa Clarita Valley/Valencia TMA, Universal City Empress TMA, 12th District Council TMA, Ventura Boulevard Corridor TMA, Warner Center TMO, Westchester/LAX TMA, West Hollywood TMA, Westwood Transportation Network

Orange County Airport Area TMA, Coastal Motion, Irvine Spectrum, Newport Center TMA, North Orange County TMA, Pacific CommerCenter Partners, South Coast Metro TMA, South Orange County TMA, Tishman's the City

Ventura County Conejo Valley TMO, Simi Valley TMA, Thousand Oaks TMA

The TMAs in Southern California have formed an "Alliance" for identifying their specific needs issues/solutions and for networking.


The following sections provide short profiles of the TMAs located in the area impacted by the 1994 Northridge Earthquake, including identification of each TMA's target market and services offered.


Burbank City Centre TMA (818-567-2112)

146 N. San Fernando Blvd., Suite 209

Burbank CA 91502-1238

Michael S. Leasher

* Burbank Airport and Downtown Burbank

* Shuttle service between the Burbank Metrolink station and employment centers in and around the Burbank-Glendale-PasadenaAirport

* Guaranteed Ride Home Program

* Transit Pass Sales

* Computerized Rideshare Matching

* Coordination of Multi-Company Vanpools

* Information resources

Burbank Media District TMO (818) 840-3279

3000 W Alameda, Room C-197

Burbank CA 91523

J.J. Weston

Glendale TMA (818) 543-7641

520 N Central Avenue, Suite 210

Glendale CA 91203

Jeanne Olwin

* Guaranteed Ride Home Program

* Transit Pass Sales

* Computerized Rideshare Matching

* Coordination of Multi-Company Vanpools

* Information resources

* Small employer program

* Emergency start-up vans

Pasadena TMA (818) 795-3355

c/o Pasadena Chamber of Commerce

117 E Colorado Blvd., Suite 100

Pasadena CA 91105-1993

Bill Wells

* Emergency FAX Communication Network

* Guaranteed Ride Home Program

* Commuter Car Rental Service

* Transit Pass Sales

* Computerized Rideshare Matching

* Information resources


12th Council District TMA (818) 882-5522

21943 Plummer Street

Chatsworth CA 91311

Aaron Hanson

* 12th Council District (North San Fernando Valley)

* Guaranteed Ride Home Program

* Metrolink Commuter Shuttle Ser

vice from Chatsworth and Sylmar/San Fernando stations

* Computerized Rideshare Matching

* Transit Pass Sales

* Vanpool Program (including vanpool discounts for new riders and vans)

* Information resources

Warner Center TMO (818) 710-7767

21600 Oxnard Street, Suite 460

Woodland Hills CA 91367

Chris Park

* Guaranteed Ride Home Program

* Transit Pass Sales

* Computerized Rideshare Matching

* Coordination of Multi-Company Vanpools

* Information resources

Van Nuys Transportation Management Association (818) 989-0300

c/o Mid-San Fernando Valley Chamber of Commerce

14540 Victory Boulevard, Suite 100

Van Nuys CA 91411-1618

Monica Hall

* Guaranteed Ride Home Program

* Missing Link Program which provides direct connection between the Van Nuys Metrolink station and worksites

* Rideshare Matching

* Coordination of Multi-Company Vanpools

* Information resources

FASTTRAQ (818) 760-5684

4024 Radford Avenue

Studio City CA 91604

Lorena Parker

* Informal working group with members in Studio City, Universal City and North Hollywood.

* Information resources


Santa Clarita Valley TMA (805) 295-0006

25633 Avenue Stanford

Valencia-Santa Clarita CA 91355

Mailing Address: P.O. Box 233, Newhall-Santa Clarita CA 91322

Connie Worden

* Vanpool Program

* Computerized Rideshare Matching

* Transit Pass Sales/Information

* Information resources


Westchester/LAX TMA (310) 410-2999

c/o Westchester/LAX Chamber of Commerce

5930 West Century Boulevard

Los Angeles CA 90048

Judith Ciancimino

* Information resources


Century City-Westside TMA (310) 553-6427

1880 Century Park East, Suite 1111

Los Angeles CA 90067

Claudia Owens

* Guaranteed Ride Home/ Short Term Auto Rental Program

* Vanpool formation

* Transit Pass Sales

* Computerized Rideshare Matching

* Information resources

West Hollywood TMO (WHATMO) (310) 858-8000

9000 Sunset Boulevard, #700

West Hollywood CA 90069

Stuart Anderson

* Guaranteed Ride Home/ Short Term Auto Rental Program

* Sunset Shuttle

* Transit Pass Sales

* Computerize

d Rideshare Matching

* Information resources

* Quickstart vanpool program

* Emergency shuttle service from the Burbank Metrolink station to West Hollywood, Beverly Hills and Century City (project with the Century City - Westside TMA and the City of Beverly Hills).

Westwood Transportation Network (WTN) (310) 206-2851

c/o UCLA Commuter Assistance Ridesharing Office

405 Hilgard, SCB II, Room 200

Los Angeles CA 90024

(310) 206-2851

Penny Menton/Charles Carter

* Guaranteed Ride Home

* Over 100 commuter vanpools

* Transit Pass Sales

* Computerized Rideshare Matching

* Emergency Metrolink Shuttle Service connecting UCLA with Union Station and Burbank

* Information resources


Simi Valley TMA (805) 526-3900

40 West Cochran Street, Suite 100

Simi Valley CA 93065

Charles Coffey

* Neighborhood Telecommute Workcenter

* Guaranteed Ride Home Program

* Transit Pass Sales

* Computerized Rideshare Matching

* Information resources



Route 14 Vanpool/Buspool Demonstration Project

The rider rebate is a direct payment to a new vanpooler or buspooler commuting from North Los Angeles County to the Tri-Cities (Burbank, Glendale, or Burbank) area. The program includes a one-time rider rebate of $125 after three months proof of ridership, a $100 child care rebate, and an emergency ride home program.

Simi Valley SR-23/SR-118 Corridor

New vanpool riders using the Moorpark Freeway (State Route 23) or Simi Valley Freeway State Route 118) in the cities of Moorpark, Thousand Oaks and Simi Valley to the Los Angeles County Line can receive a vanpool fare discount of $100 over a four month period.

Smart Traveler

Utilizing new technology, Caltrans is developing the Smart Traveler information system. Smart Traveler will use up-to-date information to provide "real time" answers to many transportation and commute-related questions.

Team Rideshare

From January until July, 1993, Caltrans ran a $4.0 million multi-media advertising campaign. The campaign was designed to encourage ridesharing on Thursdays. Caltrans traff

ic engineers monitored the usage of carpools and vanpools on Thursday mornings and concluded Team Rideshare was increasing carpool and vanpool usage (Zamichow and Perlman, 1993).

Harbor Freeway I-110 Rideshare Program

Commuters willing to try riding transit, buspools and vanpools can receive fare discounts. Transit riders receive one month free fare plus two monthly discounted passes on the Blue Line and selected Harbor Freeway express bus routes. New vanpoolers or buspoolers receive a $100 vanpool discount over a four month time period. Qualified riders must be previous Harbor Freeway users.

I-5 Rideshare Program

Caltrans is creating an I-5 rideshare program for commuters who are willing to sample rail, bus, carpool or vanpool modes. Phase I of the I-5 program includes a small employer outreach, student and public/private partnership programs.


In addition to those discussed above, various local and sub-regional agencies provide additional Rideshare Support Programs, including:

Los Angeles Department of Transportation Private Sector Challenge Grant

For companies with 99 or fewer employees, this program reimburses employers $5 a month for each monthly bus pass subsidy of $15 or more given to each employee residing in the City of Los Angeles.

Los Angeles Department of Transportation Vanpool Subsidy Program

Residents and employers of Los Angeles City can receive a grant of $5,000 to purchase or lease vans.

Club Ride

Any resident of western Riverside County who carpools, vanpools, buspools, rides public bus or rail, bicycles, walk or telecommutes to work at least one day a week and has done so for the last six months can join Club Ride. Members receive discounts on products and services, a newsletter, and can participate in special activities.

Freeway Commuter Incentive

This program offers western Riverside County residents who drive alone and use a freeway to commute to work in Orange, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino Counties direct financial incentives. Commuters receive incentives for days they rideshare during a t

hree month period. The incentives are approximately $2.00 per day for each mode. The incentives are received in the form of gift certificates. MetroLink riders receive up to $44.00 per month towards their monthly ticket.

Option Rideshare

San Bernardino residents who commute to work in San Bernardino, Riverside, Orange, or Los Angeles Counties and who drive to work alone can participate in Option Rideshare. Option Rideshare replicates the Riverside Freeway Incentive program for San Bernardino residents.

In addition to these rideshare incentive programs, Caltrans and other transportation agencies are creating special TDM projects. In this region, Caltrans District 12 and OCTA have recognized the special needs of the Vietnamese community, submitting a proposal to create Vietnamese collaterals and materials designed to promote TDM. In Los Angeles County, MTA is implementing about 100 TDM projects at a cost amount of $15 million. The SCAQMD has also funded several TDM projects through 2766 funds. The projects include parking management strategies, vanpool programs, educational efforts, shuttle and transit service, and telecommuting centers. Participants include cities and/or the county, and in most cities, the private sector (MTA, 1993).